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Deterrence theory and labelling of industrial accidents as white-collar crime in Bangladesh apparel industry: An epistemological standpoint
Muhammad Faisol Chowdhury,
This paper aims to label industrial accidents as white-collar crime in Bangladesh apparel industry, where occupational health and safety provisions are mostly brushed aside by the factory owners. The study incorporates theory and evidence from over 92 sources from the of criminology, legal systems, occupational health and safety systems, and industrial accidents. The study observes a severe leniency and negligence among the factory owners in advocation and adaptation of these provisions which can be labelled as white-collar crime.
Apparel industry, readymade garment, deterrence, white-collar crime, occupational health and safety
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Perspectives of Innovations, Economics and Business (PIEB) is a peer-reviewed interdisciplinary research journal. The journal publishes original articles, case studies and reviews exploring innovation-related issues in the different contexts of knowledge management, business development, and economic policy.

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Perspectives of Innovations, Economics and Business (PIEB) is an international, peer-reviewed research journal.

The journal focuses on interdisciplinary issues which develop in various areas of innovation management. Therefore, the scope of the journal covers but not limited to the innovation-related issues in areas of knowledge management, technology transfer and commercialization, product and business development, innovation and technology management, innovation marketing and policy and macro- and organization levels.

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Muhammad Ishtiaq Ishaq, Global Institute Lahore, Pakistan
Petr Marek, University of Economics, Prague, Czech Republic
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Saltanat Tamenova, Turan University, Kazakhstan
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Research limitations: Explain what are the limitations of your study
Conclusions: Summarize what you have done; pose questions for further research
References: Verify all references to all used literature sources in the article. Do not put references which do not directly links to your main text in the article.  Carefully check the APA style for in-text citation and for references of different types.Constructive evaluation of results: Don’t exaggerate. In an original research paper, don’t overstate your contribution to the literature.

  • The scope of literature review: If your article is a review paper, rather than original research, your scope for critiquing the literature is broader. But your critique should be focused and constructive.
  • Clarity: Authors should provide the clarity of all aspects and components of the research paper. Clarity is hard to achieve, but revising and reworking a paper ensures it is easy to read.
  • Logical nexus: In all parts of the article, try to keep the focus on reasoning around your central questions. State your hypothesis and proceed deductively to reach your conclusions
  • Wordiness: Avoid excess verbiage. Omit needless words (concise writing is clear writing).
  • Syntax: Check the syntax of every sentence to avoid vague, complex and indecipherable meaning. Remove what is not needed, and keep revising until you get down to a simple, efficient way of communicating
  • Active voice preference: Use the active voice, minimize using the passive voice

Tables and figures

  • Any manuscript which does not conform to the above instructions may be returned for the necessary revision before publication.
  • Tables should be numbered consecutively in the text in Arabic numerals.
  • Clearly and precisely describe your tables and figures. Make clear statements which describe how the results in the table and/or figure fit into the overall theme of the paper and support your hypotheses and reasoning.
  • Please put Figures and Tables on the end of your paper and make a notice in the text between what paragraphs you want the graphics
  • Figures should be done in MS Word and must be editable.
  • Do not copy and pace the figures from digital books, brochures, journals, etc. If you decide to use them, make sure using good imaging tools and soft to provide clear and correct image after placing it to the article.
  • In your submission process attach separately (when you consider it necessary) the images with sufficient resolution. So, editors can use original images for a better quality of the final article.


  • Authors should write all formulas in clear form. Preferably, write all formulas and mathematical signs, variables and parameters in the text with the help of Math type tool or Formula tool in the Microsoft Word.


  • The use of footnotes should be kept to a minimum and numbered consecutively throughout the text with superscript Arabic numerals.


  • Be very accurate in wring references. Put ONLY references which you are discussing/noting in the MAIN BODY of the article. Every work cited in the text must appear in the references; every work listed in the references must be cited in the text. The references should be in alphabetical order.
  • Please refer to APA 6th edition citation style. While preparing your submission in MS Word we also strongly encourage to use the Citations & Bibliography tools. Link 1   Link 2
  • The following websites may be also useful while preparing the APA 6th style references:,
  • The author should make sure that there is a strict one-to-one correspondence between the names and years in the text and those on the list. The list of references should appear at the end of the main text. It should be double-spaced and listed in alphabetical order by author's name.

The example references

Article from journals:
  • Abdellaoui, M., Attema, A. E., & Bleichrodt, H. (2009). Intertemporal Tradeoffs for Gains and Losses: An Experimental Measurement of Discounted Utility. The Economic Journal,120(545), 845-866. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0297.2009.02308.
  • Elton, E. J., Gruber, M. J., Brown, S. J., & Goetzmann, W. N. (2009). Modern Portfolio Theory and Investment Analysis (8th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Book chapter:
  • Chłoń-Domińczak, A., Franco, D., & Palmer, E. (2012). The First Wave of NDC Reforms: The Experiences of Italy, Latvia, Poland,and Sweden. In R. Holzmann, E. Palmer, & D. Robalino, Nonfinancial Defined Contribution Pension Schemes in a Changing Pension World: Volume 1. Progress, Lessons, and Implementation (pp. 31-84). Washington, DC: World Bank.
Conference paper:
  • Bickmann, M. (2016). Factor Mobility and Non-Harmonized Public Pension Systems in Europe. Paper presented in 14th International Workshop on Pensions, Insurance and Savings, Paris.
  • Fernandes, J. L. (2007). Risk Taking in Financial Markets: Behavioral Perspective Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Retrieved March 25, 2017, from
  • Markoff, J. (2016, May 17). Want to Buy a Self-Driving Car? Big-Rig Trucks May Come First. The New York Times. Retrieved March 25, 2017, from Day&module=RelatedCoverage®ion=EndOfArticle&pgtype=article


  • Galouchko, K., & Kucukreisoglu, L. (2016, October 18). Poland Seeks to Lock in Low Yields Selling 30-Year Eurobond. Retrieved March 25, 2017, from
Working paper:
  • Debowicz, D., Saporiti, A., & Wang, Y. (2016). Redistributive Politics, Power Sharing and Fairness (LIS Working Paper Series , Working paper No. 681). Luxembourg Income Study.


In compiling our instructions we used some valuable guidelines. Some of them we recommend to read more deeply:

  • Dudenhefer, P. (2009). A guide to Writing in Economics. EcoTeach Center and Department of Economics, Durham USA: Duke University. Retrieved March 16, 2017, from
  • Neugeboren, R. (2005). The student's guide to writing economics. New York, NY: Routledge.
  • Nikolov, P. (2013). Writing Tips For Economics Research Papers. Harvard University. Retrieved March 16, 2017, from and
  • Redmond, P. (2015). Writing Economics at University. Retrieved March 16, 2017, from

Submission fee payment

  • Standard submission & service fee established for the 2019 year open-access publications is 150 Euro.
  • The fee is subject to change considering the publisher occurring costs for sustaining and improving the open-access business model, as well as counting competitive publishing environment demanding to keep the high quality of international publication services. Changes in pricing happen only once per year.
  • The fee is due to pay only after accepting the paper by Editorial Boards and positive expertise review.
  • It is obligation and responsibility of an author to check the fee conditions to avoid the fee policy discussions after acceptance of the article. Authors are responsible to read and accept fee (150 euro) payment obligations of the targeted journal. The website has clear information about publication fees and payment terms. When paper accepted and published the author is obliged to fulfill his/ her fee payment obligations in the shortest time after the invoice issued.
  • The fee provides compensation of a range services related with expertise, scientific and technical editing, online printing, electronic storing and web-managing. All papers are printed online (with corresponding online ISSN).
  • The major  version of PIEB publication is online (electronic) with eISSN 1804-0527
  • The fee is not a subject to guarantee the sending printed copy via standard air mail.

Payments options

  • You will receive an invoice with several payment methods you can choose after the letter of acceptance.


  • Payments must be done only after the final letter of acceptance of a paper to publication.
  • Authors are responsible to read and accept fee payment obligations of the targeted journal. The website has clear information about publication fees and payment terms. When paper accepted and published the author is obliged to fulfill his/ her fee payment obligations in the shortest time after the invoice issued.
  • When the paper is conditionally accepted and the fee is paid but the final work from the authors remains incomplete and unsatisfactory for reviewers, the publication is delayed until the final resolution. The process can take a time around 1-12 months. In case authors fail, due to various reasons, to match all the requirements of reviewers and editors, the article is rejected. The paid fee is not refundable to the authors.

Electronic submission

Publication ethics

General standards of PRADEC Publishing

The Perspectives of Innovations, Economics and Business (PIEB) is established by Prague Development Center (publisher) as academic communication platform founded on important ethical standards in science publishing. Publisher and editorial board follow principles to avoid bad practices related to ghostwriting, plagiarism, and predatory publishing practices. The publisher and editors commit to practices which create and support the trust on every  phase of editorial and communication process embracing authors, editors and peer-reviewers.
To increase transparency we call authors to write correct affiliations and addresses and show the source of funding of their research when it is required by funding institutions. To agree the authorship and avoid the conflicts we ask for declaration of contribution from the corresponding author. To avoid extensive self-citation practice we ask authors to use correct and relevant referencing to own research works published earlier.
Ethical conduct in both writing and editing is necessary in order to provide the readers with accurate, useful and reliable scientific material, as well as to appropriately honor the credits of particular researchers and authors. Therefore, compliance with the following standards of publication ethics is required of all contributors of the PIEB, including authors, reviewers and editors. Violation of any of these standards by an author is a basis for rejection of his or her paper submitted for publication.


In publishing only original research, the editors are committed to deterring plagiarism, including self-plagiarism. Editors can use special software to screen submitted manuscripts for similarity to published material. Note that your manuscript may be screened during the whole editorial cycle, including submission process and until the final publication in online or print form. Authors should not engage in plagiarism - verbatim or near-verbatim copying, or very close paraphrasing, of text or results from another’s work. Authors should not engage in self-plagiarism (also known as duplicate publication) - unacceptably close replication of the author’s own previously published text or results without acknowledgement of the source.

Conflict of interests disclosure

Conflict of interest concerning a particular manuscript exists when one of the participants of reviewing or publication process - an author, reviewer, or editor - has obligations that can influence his or her action. Conflicts can occur for financial (e.g., employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, etc.) or other reasons (e.g., personal relationship, academic competition, and intellectual passion). All participants in the peer-review and publication process must disclose all conflicts of interests. Editorial staff may use information disclosed in conflict-of-interest and financial-interest statements as a basis for editorial decisions. The corresponding author must advise the editor at the time of submission either that there is no conflict of interest to declare, or should disclose potential conflicts of interest that will be acknowledged in the published article.
It is improper for an author to submit manuscripts describing essentially the same research to more than one journal of primary publication, unless it is a resubmission of a manuscript rejected for or withdrawn from publication.


All persons designed as “authors” should meet the criteria of the concept. The corresponding author must fill in and sign the PIEB_declaration_of_contribution-author (in case there are two authors or more), which should be submitted together with the manuscript. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take responsibility for its content. The group of authors/contributors should jointly make the decision about the order in which their names are given. Authorship credit should be based on the following principles as: 1) substantial contribution to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; 2) drafting the article or reviewing and introducing fundamental changes in it; 3) final approval of the version to be published. Editors of the journal have the right to request information about the contributions of each person in writing the article.
An author should cite those publications that have been important in the development of the submitted study and that will guide the reader to the earlier researchers that are essential for understanding the present analysis.
An author is obligated to perform a literature search to find, and then cite, the original publications that describe closely related work. An author should provide the accurate citation the verified sources of scientific data and literature.

Coauthor notification

During manuscript submission, the submitting author must provide contact information (full name, email address, institutional affiliation and mailing address) for all of the coauthors. The author who submits the manuscript for publication accepts the responsibility of notifying all coauthors that the manuscript is being submitted. Corresponding author must fill in and sign the declaration of contribution (in case there are two authors or more) which should be submitted together with manuscript. The co-authors of a paper should be all those persons who have made significant scientific contributions to the work reported and who share responsibility and accountability for the results. Authors should appropriately recognize the contributions of technical staff and data professionals.

Acknowledgments and funding

All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in the section “Acknowledgements”. If the original research study reported in the manuscript or the preparation of the manuscript was supported by one or more grants, the title and number of the grant(s) and the name of the institution(s) that provided the grants or financial support to conduct, analyze or write-up the study should be specified in the manuscript.

Coherence of study

Fragmentation of research reports should be avoided. A scientist should organize publication so that it provides a well-rounded description of an examined issue. Fragmentation consumes journal space excessively and unduly complicates literature searches.


The journal is peer-reviewed publication. Submitted papers and short communications are evaluated by editorial board members or specialized in the article field referees. Article review covers submitted material currency, scientific novelty degree, define it’s accordance to general journal profile, fixes facts of plagiarism. After the refereeing process is complete, the paper may be rejected, or returned to the authors for revisions, or accepted for publication.


The authors are responsible for the contents of their paper or short communication and it’s publication fact. The editorial staff reserves the right to shorten, and review the articles submitted. Editors may request an author, when it is necessary, to develop content or technical details of articles. Scientific editing might change format and correct the writing to make it conventional with editorial policy of the journal.  Pictures and graphs are special subject to editorial consideration. We seek to keep their quantity optimal and only necessary in content. Images should be free from misleading manipulation. When images are included in an account of research performed or in the data collection as part of the research, an accurate description of how the images were generated and produced should be provided.
Policies on retraction and withdrawal

As a publisher, we strive to prevent the occurrence of occasional and limited cases of retraction and withdrawal of the published articles. As the costs of securing retraction and withdrawal are high for the publisher. Effective screening, peer-reviewing, verifying authorship, and other preventive procedures usually help to minimize such rare cases in the publishing practice. Below are the important rules for retraction and withdrawal policies of the PRADEC Publishing. These approaches and rules may be revised, supplemented, amended, etc.

Article retraction

The publisher will follow the selected standards which have been developed by a number of library and scholarly bodies. Reasons for retraction can include infringements of ethical codes, multiple submission, false claims of authorship, plagiarism, fraudulent, need to correct errors in submission or publication, other reasons as well. The publisher recognizes the retraction as an occasional feature in the academic publishing.

The following actions will be made under retraction policy:

- A retraction note titled “Retraction: [article title]” will be published in the separate article at the end of the related online issue

- In the HTML version will the record [near the title] which can be e.g. as 'RETRACTED'

- The PDF version of the retracted article can be preserved with some special note at the beginning of the article

- The DOI and HTML links will be preserved

Article removal and/or withdrawal

Article after the publication is not subject to removal, except for the sole discretion of the publisher. When editors screen, review and publish the article online or/end in print the article cannot be withdrawn until the decision of editors and publisher. The published articles go immediately to indexing archives and DOI depositories.

Full rights for the removal of the publication of the article remain to the publisher. Retraction or removal of published article can arise in very rear and exceptional circumstances. Usually, it takes a long time to make a deeper analysis, examination of reasons and negotiations.

Online submission

Corresponding author must fill in and sign the Declaration of contribution (in case there are two authors or more) which should be submitted together with manuscript using the Online Submission form.


The journal is indexed/registered/covered by the following services:

Academic Journals Database, AgEcon Search, BASE, CABI, CEEOL, EBSCO Discovery Service, EBSCO Business Source Elite, E-International Scientific Research Journal Consortium (E-ISRJC), Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek EZB (Regensburg University Library), e-LIBRARY.RU, DOAJ (2010-2016), Gale, Global Health (CABI), Google scholar, LibSearch (Maastricht University), Open J-Gate,  RePEc,  ResearchGate, Ulrich’s Periodicals Directory, VSL Open, JournalSeek, Research Bible, Scirus, Knowledge Network, Academic Publishing Platforms, CiteFactor, Socionet, EconBiz, ERIH PLUS, The German National Library of Science and Technology (TIB) ‒ Leibniz Information Centre for Science and Technology and University Library, Scilit, Open Access Library (OALib), Web of Science Specialist Collection - CAB Abstracts.

We continue to work on indexation issue to provide international exposure of research papers published in our journals. However, sustaining in listings of top indexes imposes very high demands and special responsibility for the editors. This inevitably increases the time length needed for complex reviewing and analyzing the scientific articles received. We believe that indexation makes all articles well accessible and increases their potential impact on knowledge markets.

Call for reviewers

IMPORTANT: This note can be somehow similar to other few journals of the publisher (Prague Development Center). Therefore, the text may partially or completely coincide with the requirements in other journals - BEH, ATI, and MHSJ. If you are interested in reviewing articles for PRADEC journals, we would like to invite your participation. Manuscript reviewers are vital to the publications process.

Call for reviewers

The high-quality peer-review process is necessary for establishing the reputation of every scientific journal. PIEB Editorial Board announces the call for reviewers. We are looking for academic professionals specializing in various areas of innovation and development such as economics, management, business, science and R&D, innovation management, innovations in education, ICT development, social aspects of innovation.

Therefore, if you would like to share your professional opinion and have an impact on PIEB development PIEB_call_for_reviewers_form and send it to


- Possess a doctoral degree in economics/finance or related discipline;

- Be fluent in academic English;

- Hold an academic affiliation;

- Work effectively under tight deadlines;

- To be selected as a reviewer, the candidate should have published articles in peer-reviewed journals. The experience of publishing of research papers facilitates producing a thorough review. The previous peer-reviewing experience is not a must though valuable.

What do we offer?

Reviewing is voluntary. Publisher does not offer paid options to reviewers whilst it implements the open-access and affordable fee business model for authors. However, the publisher can offer credits to reviewers depending on their contribution and scale of participation.

Terms and conditions

The author and co-authors of the article strictly commit to the policy of editors by accepting these terms and conditions

  • Authors are responsible to read and accept fee payment obligations of the targeted journal. The website has clear information about publication fees and payment terms. When paper accepted and published the author is obliged to fulfill his/ her fee payment obligations in the shortest time after the invoice issued.
  • The primary version of the journal is the online version. Therefore, we do not send a printed copy to the author(s) of the published article. Publisher does not make profits via subscription or sales of print copies. The publisher offers the full content for free access to the public and without restrictions.
  • All rules and requirements relevant to the chosen type of submission are read and understood. Sending submission means accepted by the author/submitter all responsibility related to editorial and publishing conditions.
  • Submission technical requirements are read and accepted in designing and preparing the research paper
  • Please note that scientific editing might change the format and correct the writing to make it conventional with editorial policy.
  • Responsibility for facts and opinions presented in the contents of journals, electronic and/or printed rests exclusively with the authors, other submitters if there is relevance. Their interpretations do not necessarily reflect the views of publisher or editors, affiliated or partnering with journals and with authors institutions.
  • F.A.Q. must be visited if there is an additional reason in clarifying editorial policy. The editors can contact editors via email when it is accepted
  • Neither the publisher nor the editors can be held responsible for errors or any consequences arising from the use of information contained in this journal.
  • Rejected manuscripts will not be returned to the author.
  • The submitted article after evaluation can be published in elaborating/projecting online issues which differ ahead/or back from the submission date up to 3 consequent issues or 6 months interval.
  • The version of an article which is published online is considered the final and complete version. Even though it is possible to correct this version, our policy (in common with other publishers) is not to do so, except in very limited circumstances. When an author wishes to update the published paper it can be possible within 4 weeks after publication.
  • Article after the publication is not subject to removal, except for the sole discretion of the publisher. When editors screen, review and publish the article online or/end in print the article cannot be withdrawn until the decision of editors and publisher. The published articles go immediately to indexing archives and DOI depositories.
  • Full rights for the removal of the publication of the article remain to the publisher. Retraction or removal of published article can arise in very rear and exceptional circumstances. Usually, it takes a long time to make a deeper analysis, examination of reasons and negotiations.
  • After receiving of the article editors and publisher usually publish immediately online the metadata. After screening and reviewing the full article can be published. The time length between submission and publication of metadata and the full article can be different and make hours, days or months. All this process is usually related to merits, quality of the paper, internal editorial processes, other factors. When necessary, the editors can issue proof of acceptance to the applied author.
  • The author is responsible for avoiding multiple submissions of the same article to other journals. PRADEC editors can charge authors for additional fees when it will be found that similar article was published in parallel. We can contact and inform the relevant journals about multiple practices of the author. When there are signs and suspicions about duplicate submission behavior of the authors the publisher monitors periodically online during 12 weeks.
  • Website content, information, or terms and conditions may be revised without formal notice. We cannot guarantee that this website will be updated on a regular basis or otherwise provide the most current or accurate information that may be available.
  • No part of the material protected by this copyright notice may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the copyright owner.