BEH is peer-reviewed international research journal. BEH covers a broad spectrum of issues related to business and economics at all levels of aggregation; encourages subjects meeting responses and challenges of market development at local, national and global dimensions. The primary version of the journal is the online version.
e-ISSN (online): 1804-5006
ISSN (print): 1804-1205
OPEN ACCESS ONLINE JOURNAL
Prague Development Center, Czech Republic
Orifjan Namozov, Innovation and Technology Management Academy (ITMA); Czech Republic
Deputy Chief Editor
Paweł Dobrzański, Wroclaw University of Economics; Poland
Karol Fjałkowski, Business Ethics, Institutional Economics. Wroclaw University of Economics; Poland
Yasuo Hoshino, Quantitative Analysis of Corporate Mergers, Behavioral Analysis of International Joint Ventures. Aichi University, University of Tsukuba; Japan
Rafał Jakubowski, Micro- and Macroeconomics, Experimental Economics. Wroclaw University of Economics; Poland
Paweł Kuśmierczyk, Mathematical Economics, Auction Theory. Wroclaw University of Economics; Poland
Maureen Maloney, Pension Economics. National University of Ireland, Galawey (NUIG); Ireland
Daniel Papla, Econometrics, Statistics. Wroclaw University of Economics; Poland
Adalberto Rangone, Corporate Governance, Business Management. University of Pavia; Italy
Tomasz Słoński, Corporate Finance, Financial Analysis, Financial Markets. Wroclaw University of Economics; Poland
Komsan Suriya, Managerial Economics, Industrial Organization, Digital Economy. Chiang Mai University; Thailand
Min-Teh Yu, Financial Institutions, Risk Management and Insurance, Derivatives Markets. National Chiao Tung University; Taiwan
Nargiza Alimekhamedova, CERGE-EI, Czech Republic
Advisory CouncilJosef Abrham, Centre of European Studies, University of Economics, Prague; Czech Republic
Oscar Bajo-Rubio, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha; Spain
Filip Chybalski, Lodz University of Technology; Poland
Jurgen Conrad, Asian Development Bank; People's Republic of China
Carmen Díaz-Roldán, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha; Spain
Ryokichi Hirono, Seikei University; Japan
Khaled Hussainey, Portsmouth University; United Kingdom
Mario B. Lamberte, COMPETE, The Asia Foundation; Philippines
Pacha Malyadri, Osmania University, Andhra Pradesh; India
Petr Marek, University of Economics, Prague; Czech Republic
Haitham Nobanee, College of Business Administration, Abu Dhabi University; U.A.E.
Maria Piotrowska, Wrocław University of Economics; Poland
Maia Pisaniuc, Academy of Economis Studies; Moldova
Miroslav Tuček, University of Economics, Prague; Czech Republic
- Business and Economic Horizons (BEH) accepts only the papers in the English language.
- Article previously published, those under consideration by another journal, and those with a pre-existing copyright may not be submitted. Authors must ensure that at least half of the paper contents or core idea has not been published anywhere else. In other words, authors should prove the considerable adjustment made and value added in their submissions.
- Neither the Editorial Board nor PRADEC pays for unsolicited materials. The Editorial Board reserves the right to minor editorial corrections like abbreviations or changes in titles and sub-titles.
- Any requests to add or to remove a co-author, to rearrange the co-author names must be sent to BEH by the Corresponding Author before the final acceptance by the Editorial Board.The eventual request must contain the explanation of the request together with the scanned confirmation signed by all of the co-authors.
- Editors of Business and Economic Horizons (BEH) are committed to the highest standards of ethics in academic research and publishing. Ethical conduct in both writing and editing is necessary in order to provide the readers with accurate, useful and reliable scientific material, as well as to appropriately honor the credits of particular researchers and authors. Therefore, compliance with the following standards of publication ethics is required of all contributors of BEH, including authors, reviewers and editors. Violation of any of these standards by an author is a basis for rejection of his or her paper submitted for publication.
- We recommend authors to carefully read the detailed description of the publication ethics, covering such sections as "Authorship and Co-authorship", "Quality of Published Work", "Reviewing and Editing". This information can be navigated on the journal page central menu [PUBLICATION ETHICS].
Peer review procedures
- The corresponding author fills in the Online Submission form.
- The BEH Editorial Board recognises the phenomena of "ghostwriting" and "guest authorship" as the serious scientific misconduct. Moreover, the eventual financial support of any research institution or other entity to the paper creation needed to be revealed in the article acknowledgments "financial disclosure". Therefore the Corresponding author must fill in and sign the Declaration of contribution (in case there are two authors or more) which should be submitted together with manuscript using the Online Submission form. All detected cases of scientific misconduct will be documented and the appropriate institutions and entities will be notified.
- Ghostwriting - a substantial contribution to publication has been made, without revealing author’s participation, or without being mentioned in the acknowledgments enclosed in the paper. Guest authorship (honorary authorship) - the author's contribution is insignificant, despite of declaration.
- The Editorial Board members make the initial screening of the submissions and inform the authors if the papers are suitable for the journals. After this initial acceptance, the reviewing process starts.
- All of the contributions of the BEH are subject to a double-blind peer-review, which means that neither the author(s) nor the reviewers know the identity of the other. The list of reviewers is published on the BEH website once a year, without assigning the reviewers names to a particular article.
- Every submitted paper is reviewed by at least two independent reviewers (outside of the authors' affiliated entity. Additionally, at least one of the reviewers is affiliated with a foreign institution relative to the nationality of the author(s). The reviews are in written form and contain a clear referees' statements concerning paper's publishing approval or its rejection
- In case of minor revisions, the article is sent to the author(s) together with a referees opinions. The authors are asked to respond the referees' comments and make the appropriate adjustments in the text. Then, the authors send back the corrected version.
- The Editorial Board makes the final decision on publication.
- Step 1: Submission of one or two files using the Online Submission: a typescript and the Declaration of Contribution (if relevant).
- Step 2: The initial screening by the Editorial Board.
- Step 3: The double-blind review by at least two independent referees.
- Step 4: The response to the reviews and eventual article corrections made by author(s)
- Step 5: The final decision of Editorial Board
- Please read the following guidelines and use the sample article format for submission of your paper since only articles formatted accordingly may be accepted.
- Articles must be written in English.
- Concise and informative. Avoid abbreviations.
Author names and affiliations
- Full names should be provided. Please indicate affiliations of the author. Indicate the authors' affiliation addresses below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the Author's name and in front of the appropriate address.
- Ensure that telephone and fax numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address.
- A concise abstract should briefly state the purpose of the research and the main results. An abstract must be presented in English and separate from the article, so it must be able to stand alone.
- An abstract summarizes one comprehensive paragraph (SHOULD NOT be very short). The abstract covers the major aspects of the entire paper. They include a) the research problem(s) you investigated, a statement of the paper’s main contribution; b) the overall purpose/aim of the study; c) major findings or trends found as a result of your analysis; d) a brief summary of your interpretations and conclusions.
- The Abstract should reveal the value the value/contribution of the article.
- The Abstract should preferably attract the attention of readers
- The Abstract should be written in an active rather than passive voice.
- The abstract SHOULD NOT contain: lengthy background information; references to other literature; using ellipticals [i.e., ending with "..."] or incomplete sentences; abbreviations, jargon, or terms that may be confusing to the reader.
- Write the abstract after you have finished writing your whole paper. The best approach is to write the abstract after you have completed writing your whole article. Define and pick out key statements from your introduction, methods, results, and discussion sections while compiling your abstract. Edit your abstract carefully to make it cohesive and persuasive. After finishing the Abstract, authors should remove all extra information, check cohesiveness, and then logically connect sentences with each other to ensure that the information flows well. Also, authors need to check once again that there is consistency between the information presented in the abstract and in the paper. One example of sequence order can be the as follows: purpose; basic study design, methodology, and techniques used; major findings; summary of your interpretations, conclusions, and implications.
Classification codes and keywords
- Provide at least one standard JEL code and up to 5 additional keywords.
- The Introduction should (could) contain the following points: the clear explanation what problem/issue is taken to study in the paper; the background information delivered to specific points; the clear problem statement; description of the major contribution of the authors to the research of the targeted problem; explaining the organisation (what the authors plan to make in every main section) of the paper in the last paragraph in the Introduction.
- The introduction should start straightforward with the issue you research in this paper. Avoid general and abstract sentences. Authors should mention the interesting issue and the related problem statement. Narrow the background information down to specific points. A writer should not include details in the research paper introduction.
- Style of writing should be persuasive. Authors should care about reasoning around the issue chosen for the research, about the importance of the issue.
- Preferably the introduction should not replace the Literature review (as it is a different section). The latter should basically follow after the finishing the Introduction section.
- Authors should clearly state what their contribution to the existing research is.
- Explain briefly major questions and/or hypotheses.
- Mention briefly on methodology how you are approaching (method, model, testing, review, etc.) to the questions. You must make clear whether you are testing a model, evaluating a model, making a review of policy, etc. Authors should indicate to data used in the research.
- Explain briefly your main results; how the obtained findings differ from previous work and what the implications of these findings are.
Writing Style guidelines
- Figures should be done in MS Word and must be editable.
- Authors can find useful the selected guidelines regarding the writing style.
- Well-balanced structure of the article: Build up a good outline (structure) of your article. A sample of the outline can look as follows:
Introduction: Pose an central question or problem, describe problm statement, explain the organisation of the paper (how the article is organized, composed)
Literature review: Survey the sufficient literature to discover existing approaches and results on the central questions and problems of your article
Methods/Data: Formulate your hypothesis and describe your data. Clearly specify data, tools, and models.
Results: Present your results with the help of graphs and charts
Discussion: Critique your method and/or discuss any policy implications
Research limitations: Explain what are the limitations of your study
Conclusions: Summarize what you have done; pose questions for further research
References: Verify all references to all used literature sources in the article. Do not put references which do not directly links to your main text in the article. Carefully check the APA style for in-text citation and for references of different types.Constructive evaluation of results: Don’t exaggerate. In an original research paper, don’t overstate your contribution to the literature.
- The scope of literature review: If your article is a review paper, rather than original research, your scope for critiquing the literature is broader. But your critique should be focused and constructive.
- Clarity: Authors should provide the clarity of all aspects and components of the research paper. Clarity is hard to achieve, but revising and reworking a paper ensures it is easy to read.
- Logical nexus: In all parts of the article, try to keep the focus on reasoning around your central questions. State your hypothesis and proceed deductively to reach your conclusions
- Wordiness: Avoid excess verbiage. Omit needless words (concise writing is clear writing).
- Syntax: Check the syntax of every sentence to avoid vague, complex and indecipherable meaning. Remove what is not needed, and keep revising until you get down to a simple, efficient way of communicating
- Active voice preference: Use the active voice, minimize using the passive voice
Tables and figures
- Any manuscript which does not conform to the above instructions may be returned for the necessary revision before publication.
- Tables should be numbered consecutively in the text in Arabic numerals.
- Clearly and precisely describe your tables and figures. Make clear statements which describe how the results in the table and/or figure fit into the overall theme of the paper and support your hypotheses and reasoning.
- Please put Figures and Tables on the end of your paper and make a notice in the text between what paragraphs you want the graphics
- Figures should be done in MS Word and must be editable.
- Do not copy and pace the figures from digital books, brochures, journals, etc. If you decide to use them, make sure using good imaging tools and soft to provide clear and correct image after placing it to the article.
- In your submission process attach separately (when you consider it necessary) the images with sufficient resolution. So, editors can use original images for a better quality of the final article.
- Authors should write all formulas in clear form. Preferably, write all formulas and mathematical signs, variables and parameters in the text with the help of Math type tool or Formula tool in the Microsoft Word.
- The use of footnotes should be kept to a minimum and numbered consecutively throughout the text with superscript Arabic numerals.
- Be very accurate in wring references. Put ONLY references which you are discussing/noting in the MAIN BODY of the article. Every work cited in the text must appear in the references; every work listed in the references must be cited in the text. The references should be in alphabetical order.
- Please refer to APA 6th edition citation style. While preparing your submission in MS Word we also strongly encourage to use the Citations & Bibliography tools. Link 1 Link 2
- The following websites may be also useful while preparing the APA 6th style references: citationmachine.net, citethisforme.com
- The author should make sure that there is a strict one-to-one correspondence between the names and years in the text and those on the list. The list of references should appear at the end of the main text. It should be double-spaced and listed in alphabetical order by author's name.
The example references
- Abdellaoui, M., Attema, A. E., & Bleichrodt, H. (2009). Intertemporal Tradeoffs for Gains and Losses: An Experimental Measurement of Discounted Utility. The Economic Journal,120(545), 845-866. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0297.2009.02308.
- Elton, E. J., Gruber, M. J., Brown, S. J., & Goetzmann, W. N. (2009). Modern Portfolio Theory and Investment Analysis (8th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
- Chłoń-Domińczak, A., Franco, D., & Palmer, E. (2012). The First Wave of NDC Reforms: The Experiences of Italy, Latvia, Poland,and Sweden. In R. Holzmann, E. Palmer, & D. Robalino, Nonfinancial Defined Contribution Pension Schemes in a Changing Pension World: Volume 1. Progress, Lessons, and Implementation (pp. 31-84). Washington, DC: World Bank.
- Bickmann, M. (2016). Factor Mobility and Non-Harmonized Public Pension Systems in Europe. Paper presented in 14th International Workshop on Pensions, Insurance and Savings, Paris.
- Fernandes, J. L. (2007). Risk Taking in Financial Markets: Behavioral Perspective Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Retrieved March 25, 2017, from https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/6287466.pdf
- Markoff, J. (2016, May 17). Want to Buy a Self-Driving Car? Big-Rig Trucks May Come First. The New York Times. Retrieved March 25, 2017, from https://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/17/technology/want-to-buy-a-self-driving-car-trucks-may-come-first.html?action=click&contentCollection=Business Day&module=RelatedCoverage®ion=EndOfArticle&pgtype=article
- Galouchko, K., & Kucukreisoglu, L. (2016, October 18). Poland Seeks to Lock in Low Yields Selling 30-Year Eurobond. Retrieved March 25, 2017, from https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-10-18/poland-seeks-to-lock-in-low-yields-with-first-30-year-eurobond
- Debowicz, D., Saporiti, A., & Wang, Y. (2016). Redistributive Politics, Power Sharing and Fairness (LIS Working Paper Series , Working paper No. 681). Luxembourg Income Study
In compiling our instructions we used some valuable guidelines. Some of them we recommend to read more deeply:
- Dudenhefer, P. (2009). A guide to Writing in Economics. EcoTeach Center and Department of Economics, Durham USA: Duke University. Retrieved March 16, 2017, from http://writing.ku.edu/sites/writing.drupal.ku.edu/files/docs/Guide_Writing_Economics.pdf
- Neugeboren, R. (2005). The student's guide to writing economics. New York, NY: Routledge.
- Nikolov, P. (2013). Writing Tips For Economics Research Papers. Harvard University. Retrieved March 16, 2017, from http://www.people.fas.harvard.edu/~pnikolov/resources/writingtips.pdf and
- Redmond, P. (2015). Writing Economics at University. Retrieved March 16, 2017, from https://ddd.uab.cat/pub/recdoc/2015/166563/Writing_Economics.pd
Submission fee payment
- Standard submission & service fee established for the 2019 year open-access publications is 375 Euro.
- The fee is subject to change considering the publisher occurring costs for sustaining and improving the open-access business model, as well as counting competitive publishing environment demanding to keep the high quality of international publication services. Changes in pricing happen only once per year, usually in the January-February.
- The fee is due to pay only after accepting the paper by Editorial Boards and positive expertise review.
- It is obligation and responsibility of an author to check the fee conditions to avoid the fee policy discussions after acceptance the article. Authors are responsible to read and accept fee (375 euro) payment obligations of the targeted journal. The website has clear information about publication fees and payment terms. When paper accepted and published the author is obliged to fulfill his/ her fee payment obligations in the shortest time after the invoice issued.
- The fee provides compensation for a range services related to expertise, scientific and technical editing, online printing, electronic storing and web-managing. All papers are printed online (with corresponding online ISSN).
- You will receive an invoice with several payment methods you can choose after the letter of acceptance. We use standard bank payments, PayPal payments.
- Payments must be done only after the final letter of acceptance of a paper for publication.
- Authors are responsible to read and accept fee payment obligations of the targeted journal. The website has clear information about publication fees and payment terms. When paper accepted and published the author is obliged to fulfill his/ her fee payment obligations in the shortest time after the invoice issued.
- When the paper is conditionally accepted and the fee is paid but the final work from the authors remains incomplete and unsatisfactory for reviewers, the publication is delayed until the final resolution. The process can take a time around 1-12 months. In case authors fail, due to various reasons, to match all the requirements of reviewers and editors, the article is rejected. The paid fee is not refundable to the authors.
Retraction or/and withdrawing of reviewed and published articles
- The peer-reviewed and published articles cannot be retracted or withdrawn. If the article was officially submitted and accepted by editors after screening and reviewing, the withdrawal and retraction are not possible. Accepted articles assume that our experts and reviewers could not identify problems with merits of a submitted article. After the positive initial screening and double-blind reviewing, every article is assigned to DOI.
- However, editors do understand satisfaction concerns of an author and usually ask for describing the problem for further reviewer's examination and discussion. So, the one possible option is that it can be possible to make changes within the reasonable shortest time after online publication. Another option, an author can write another article which should provide the follow-up review of errors/mistakes in a theoretical research or empirical model in the previously published article.
- For more details please read terms and conditions which you officially accept when you send your articles to the editors' emails. It is a responsibility of an author to read instruction, conditions, and terms before the submission of an article. These terms make retraction or removal impossible. Only editors and publisher make decisions after receiving the article regarding rejection, further update or publishing.
- Information regarding the retraction and withdrawal conditions are available in the following sections of the core official page of the journal: - the section "Publication ethics"; the section "Terms and Conditions"; the section "Guide to Authors".
As a publisher, we strive to prevent the occurrence of occasional and limited cases of retraction and withdrawal of the published articles. As the costs of securing retraction and withdrawal are high for the publisher. Effective screening, peer-reviewing, verifying authorship, and other preventive procedures usually help to minimize such rare cases in the publishing practice. Below are the important rules for retraction and withdrawal policies of the PRADEC Publishing. These approaches and rules may be revised, supplemented, amended, etc.
The publisher will follow the selected standards which have been developed by a number of library and scholarly bodies. Reasons for retraction can include infringements of ethical codes, multiple submission, false claims of authorship, plagiarism, fraudulent, need to correct errors in submission or publication, other reasons as well. The publisher recognizes the retraction as an occasional feature in the academic publishing.
The following actions will be made under retraction policy:
- A retraction note titled “Retraction: [article title]” will be published in the separate article at the end of the related online issue
- In the HTML version will the record [near the title] which can be e.g. as 'RETRACTED'
- The PDF version of the retracted article can be preserved with some special note at the beginning of the article
- The DOI and HTML links will be preserved
Article removal and/or withdrawal
Article after the publication is not subject to removal, except for the sole discretion of the publisher. When editors screen, review and publish the article online or/end in print the article cannot be withdrawn until the decision of editors and publisher. The published articles go immediately to indexing archives and DOI depositories.
Full rights for the removal of the publication of the article remain to the publisher. Retraction or removal of published article can arise in very rear and exceptional circumstances. Usually, it takes a long time to make a deeper analysis, examination of reasons and negotiations.
The journal is indexed/registered/covered by the following services:
Academic Journals Database, AgEcon Search, BASE, Bazekon, CEEOL, CEJSH, EBSCO Discovery Service, EBSCO Business Source Elite, EBSCO Business Source Premier, ERIH PLUS, ProQuest (Business Premium Collection), E-International Scientific Research Journal Consortium (E-ISRJC), Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek EZB (Regensburg University Library), EconBiz, e-LIBRARY.RU, DOAJ, Gale, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Libsearch, Open J-Gate, RePEc, ResearchGate, SCOPUS (2013-2018), Ulrich’s Periodicals Directory, VSL Open, The German National Library of Science and Technology (TIB) ‒ Leibniz Information Centre for Science and Technology and University Library, Scilit, Open Access Library (OALib), ResearchBib, Web of Science Core Collection (Emerging Sources Citation Index), Web of Science Specialist Collection- CAB Abstracts, Zeitschriftendatenbank (ZDB) [The German National Serials Database].
We continue to work on indexation issue to provide international exposure of research papers published in our journals. However, sustaining in listings of top indexes imposes very high demands and special responsibility for the editors. This inevitably increases the time length needed for complex reviewing and analyzing the scientific articles received. We believe that indexation makes all articles well accessible and increases their potential impact on knowledge markets. We believe that indexation makes all articles well accessible and increases their potential impact on knowledge markets.
IMPORTANT: This note can be somehow similar to other few journals of the publisher (Prague Development Center). Therefore, the text may partially or completely coincide with the requirements in other journals - PIEB, ATI, and MHSJ. If you are interested in reviewing articles for PRADEC journals, we would like to invite your participation. Manuscript reviewers are vital to the publications process.
Call for reviewers
The high-quality peer-review process is necessary for establishing the reputation of every scientific journal. Due to the increasing number of submissions, BEH Editorial Board announces the call for reviewers. We are looking for academic professionals specializing in various economic and finance areas. Therefore, if you would like to share your professional opinion and have an impact on BEH development please fill in the survey and send it to firstname.lastname@example.org.
- Possess a doctoral degree in economics/finance or related discipline;
- Be fluent in academic English;
- Hold an academic affiliation;
- Work effectively under tight deadlines;
-To be selected as a reviewer, the candidate should have published articles in peer-reviewed journals. The experience of publishing of research papers facilitates producing a thorough review. The previous peer-reviewing experience is not a must though valuable.
What do we offer?
Reviewing is voluntary. Publisher does not offer paid options to reviewers whilst it implements the open-access and affordable fee business model for authors. However, the publisher can offer credits to reviewers depending on their contribution and scale of participation.
The author and co-authors of the article strictly commit to the policy of editors by accepting these terms and conditions
- Authors are responsible to read and accept fee (215 euro) payment obligations of the targeted journal. The website has clear information about publication fees and payment terms. When paper accepted and published the author is obliged to fulfill his/ her fee payment obligations in the shortest time after the invoice issued.
- The primary version of the journal is the online version. Therefore, we do not send a printed copy to the author(s) of the published article. Publisher does not make profits via subscription or sales of print copies. The publisher offers the full content for free access to the public and without restrictions.
- All rules and requirements relevant to the chosen type of submission are read and understood. Sending submission means accepted by the author/submitter all responsibility related to editorial and publishing conditions.
- Submission technical requirements are read and accepted in designing and preparing the research paper
- Please note that scientific editing might change the format and correct the writing to make it conventional with editorial policy.
- Responsibility for facts and opinions presented in the contents of journals, electronic and/or printed rests exclusively with the authors, other submitters if there is relevance. Their interpretations do not necessarily reflect the views of publisher or editors, affiliated or partnering with journals and with authors institutions.
- F.A.Q. must be visited if there is an additional reason in clarifying editorial policy. The editors can contact editors via email when it is accepted
- Neither the publisher nor the editors can be held responsible for errors or any consequences arising from the use of information contained in this journal.
- Rejected manuscripts will not be returned to the author.
- The submitted article after evaluation can be published in elaborating/projecting online issues which differ ahead/or back from the submission date up to 3 consequent issues or 6 months interval.
- The version of an article which is published online is considered the final and complete version. Even though it is possible to correct this version, our policy (in common with other publishers) is not to do so, except in very limited circumstances. When an author wishes to update the published paper it can be possible within 4 weeks after publication.
- After receiving of the article editors and publisher usually publish immediately online the metadata. After screening and reviewing the full article can be published. The time length between submission and publication of metadata and the full article can be different and make hours, days or months. All this process is usually related to merits, quality of the paper, internal editorial processes, other factors. When necessary, the editors can issue proof of acceptance to the applied author.
- The author is responsible for avoiding multiple submissions of the same article to other journals. PRADEC editors can charge authors for additional fees when it will be found that similar article was published in parallel. We can contact and inform the relevant journals about multiple practices of the author. When there are signs and suspicions about duplicate submission behaviour of the authors the publisher monitors periodically online during 12 weeks.
- Website content, information, or terms and conditions may be revised without formal notice. We cannot guarantee that this website will be updated on a regular basis or otherwise provide the most current or accurate information that may be available.
- No part of the material protected by this copyright notice may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the copyright owner.