PIEB guide to authors

PIEB journal guide to authors

Sample article template

  • Please read the following guidelines and use the sample article format for submission of your paper since only articles formatted accordingly may be accepted. This sample template can help you avoid mistakes in the formatting process of your original article. Do not send us articles in other formats (e.g., pdfs). Improperly formatted articles will not be considered for screening and review process. We made this basic template to save your time in reading detailed instruction and guidance.

Screening, editorial analysis, and peer-review procedures

  • All articles submitted to PIEB undergo screening and followed with a peer-reviewing process.
  • The corresponding author should send the formatted article and necessary attachments through the Online Submission Form.
  • The author who submits the manuscript for publication accepts the responsibility of notifying all co-authors of the manuscript being submitted. The corresponding author must fill in and sign the Declaration of Contribution (in case there are two authors or more), which should be submitted together with the manuscript.
  • After initial screening, the titles and abstracts of the articles, which receive a positive evaluation, will be published online.
  • Every article proceeds double-blind peer-review analysis by editorial and external experts. The submitted paper is reviewed by at least two independent reviewers (outside of the authors' affiliated entity). The PIEB_review_form and contain a clear referees' statements concerning paper's publishing approval or its rejection. Reviewers should evaluate the quality of an article based both on established criteria and own views of experts. The reviewer is expected to fill the review form and send to the editorial department.

Quality control

  • Papers accepted undergo quality control by Editorial board and peer reviewers. All research articles in these journals undergo a peer review process, based on initial editor screening and anonymous expertise of reviewers. Articles previously published, those under consideration by another journal, and those with a pre-existing copyright may not be submitted. The author must ensure that about half of the paper contents or core idea has not been published anywhere else.  In other words, authors should prove the considerable adjustment made and value added in their submissions.


  • Articles must be written in English.


  • The title should use descriptive terms and phrases that accurately highlight the core content of the paper. Title of your paper is the most important determinant of how many people will read it. An effective research paper title provides: condensing the paper’s content in a few words; capturing the readers’ attention; differentiating the paper from other papers of the same subject area.
  • It is advised to keep the title brief and clear, concise and informative. Avoid abbreviations.
  • Use active verbs instead of complex noun-based phrases, and avoid unnecessary details.
  • Basically, a good title for a research paper is typically around 10 to 12 words long. A lengthy title may seem unfocused and take the readers’ attention away from an important point.

Author names and affiliations

  • Full names should be provided. Please indicate affiliations of the author. Indicate the authors' affiliation addresses below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the Author's name and in front of the appropriate address.
  • Authors should also write the abbreviated names of all authors (with initials): e.g. Peterson, G. F., Palmer, E. H., Logynov, A. V., etc. Correct surnames and initials are important to cite the published article and indexing the article in databases.


  • Ensure that telephone and fax numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal/corresponding address.
  • All published articles usually show the full corresponding address of the main author


  • A concise abstract should briefly state the purpose of the research and the main results. An abstract must be presented in English and separate from the article, so it must be able to stand alone.
  • An abstract summarizes one comprehensive paragraph (SHOULD NOT be very short). The abstract covers the major aspects of the entire paper. They include a) the research problem(s) you investigated, a statement of the paper’s main contribution; b) the overall purpose/aim of the study; c) major findings or trends found as a result of your analysis; d) a brief summary of your interpretations and conclusions.
  • The Abstract should reveal the value the value/contribution of the article.
  • The Abstract  should preferably attract the attention of readers
  • The Abstract should be written in an active rather than passive voice.
  • The abstract SHOULD NOT contain: lengthy background information; references to other literature; using ellipticals [i.e., ending with "..."] or incomplete sentences; abbreviations, jargon, or terms that may be confusing to the reader.
  • Write the abstract after you have finished writing your whole paper. The best approach is to write the abstract after you have completed writing your whole article. Define and pick out key statements from your introduction, methods, results, and discussion sections while compiling your abstract. Edit your abstract carefully to make it cohesive and persuasive. After finishing the Abstract, authors should remove all extra information, check cohesiveness, and then logically connect sentences with each other to ensure that the information flows well. Also, authors need to check once again that there is consistency between the information presented in the abstract and in the paper. One example of sequence order can be the as follows: purpose; basic study design, methodology, and techniques used; major findings; summary of your interpretations, conclusions, and implications.


  • Keywords ensure that your paper is indexed well by databases and search engines, and thus improve the discoverability of your research. Therefore, keywords should be selected after careful consideration.
  • Use relevant keywords to facilitate correct classification in relevant indexes. The keywords should be words which are highly relevant to your work and found in the text of your abstract. Include 5-10 important words or short phrases central to your research in both the abstract and keywords sections.


  • The Introduction should (could) contain the following points: the clear explanation what problem/issue is taken to study in the paper; the background information delivered to specific points; the clear problem statement; description of the major contribution of the authors to the research of the targeted problem; explaining the organisation (what the authors plan to make in every main section) of the paper in the last paragraph in the Introduction.
  • The introduction should start straightforward with the issue you research in this paper. Avoid general and abstract sentences. Authors should mention the interesting issue and the related problem statement. Narrow the background information down to specific points. A writer should not include details in the research paper introduction.
  • Style of writing should be persuasive. Authors should care about reasoning around the issue chosen for the research, about the importance of the issue.
  • Preferably the introduction should not replace the Literature review (as it is a different section). The latter should basically follow after the finishing the Introduction section.
  • Authors should clearly state what their contribution to the existing research is.
  • Explain briefly major questions and/or hypotheses.
  • Mention briefly on methodology how you are approaching (method, model, testing, review, etc.) to the questions. You must make clear whether you are testing a model, evaluating a model, making a review of policy, etc. Authors should indicate to data used in the research.
  • Explain briefly your main results; how the obtained findings differ from previous work and what the implications of these findings are.

Writing Style guidelines

  • Figures should be done in MS Word and must be editable.
  • Authors can find useful the selected guidelines regarding the writing style.
  • Well-balanced structure of the article: Build up a good outline (structure) of your article. A sample of the outline can look as follows:

Introduction: Pose an central question or problem, describe problm statement, explain the organisation of the paper (how the article is organized, composed)
Literature review: Survey the sufficient literature to discover existing approaches and results on the central questions and problems of your article
Methods/Data: Formulate your hypothesis and describe your data. Clearly specify data, tools, and models.
Results: Present your results with the help of graphs and charts
Discussion: Critique your method and/or discuss any policy implications
Research limitations: Explain what are the limitations of your study
Conclusions: Summarize what you have done; pose questions for further research
References: Verify all references to all used literature sources in the article. Do not put references which do not directly links to your main text in the article.  Carefully check the APA style for in-text citation and for references of different types.Constructive evaluation of results: Don’t exaggerate. In an original research paper, don’t overstate your contribution to the literature.

  • The scope of literature review: If your article is a review paper, rather than original research, your scope for critiquing the literature is broader. But your critique should be focused and constructive.
  • Clarity: Authors should provide the clarity of all aspects and components of the research paper. Clarity is hard to achieve, but revising and reworking a paper ensures it is easy to read.
  • Logical nexus: In all parts of the article, try to keep the focus on reasoning around your central questions. State your hypothesis and proceed deductively to reach your conclusions
  • Wordiness: Avoid excess verbiage. Omit needless words (concise writing is clear writing).
  • Syntax: Check the syntax of every sentence to avoid vague, complex and indecipherable meaning. Remove what is not needed, and keep revising until you get down to a simple, efficient way of communicating
  • Active voice preference: Use the active voice, minimize using the passive voice

Tables and figures

  • Any manuscript which does not conform to the above instructions may be returned for the necessary revision before publication.
  • Tables should be numbered consecutively in the text in Arabic numerals.
  • Clearly and precisely describe your tables and figures. Make clear statements which describe how the results in the table and/or figure fit into the overall theme of the paper and support your hypotheses and reasoning.
  • Please put Figures and Tables on the end of your paper and make a notice in the text between what paragraphs you want the graphics
  • Figures should be done in MS Word and must be editable.
  • Do not copy and pace the figures from digital books, brochures, journals, etc. If you decide to use them, make sure using good imaging tools and soft to provide clear and correct image after placing it to the article.
  • In your submission process attach separately (when you consider it necessary) the images with sufficient resolution. So, editors can use original images for a better quality of the final article.


  • Authors should write all formulas in clear form. Preferably, write all formulas and mathematical signs, variables and parameters in the text with the help of Math type tool or Formula tool in the Microsoft Word.


  • The use of footnotes should be kept to a minimum and numbered consecutively throughout the text with superscript Arabic numerals.


  • Be very accurate in wring references. Put ONLY references which you are discussing/noting in the MAIN BODY of the article. Every work cited in the text must appear in the references; every work listed in the references must be cited in the text. The references should be in alphabetical order.
  • Please refer to APA 6th edition citation style. While preparing your submission in MS Word we also strongly encourage to use the Citations & Bibliography tools. Link 1   Link 2
  • The following websites may be also useful while preparing the APA 6th style references: citationmachine.net, citethisforme.com
  • The author should make sure that there is a strict one-to-one correspondence between the names and years in the text and those on the list. The list of references should appear at the end of the main text. It should be double-spaced and listed in alphabetical order by author's name.

The example references

Article from journals:
  • Abdellaoui, M., Attema, A. E., & Bleichrodt, H. (2009). Intertemporal Tradeoffs for Gains and Losses: An Experimental Measurement of Discounted Utility. The Economic Journal,120(545), 845-866. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0297.2009.02308.
  • Elton, E. J., Gruber, M. J., Brown, S. J., & Goetzmann, W. N. (2009). Modern Portfolio Theory and Investment Analysis (8th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Book chapter:
  • Chłoń-Domińczak, A., Franco, D., & Palmer, E. (2012). The First Wave of NDC Reforms: The Experiences of Italy, Latvia, Poland,and Sweden. In R. Holzmann, E. Palmer, & D. Robalino, Nonfinancial Defined Contribution Pension Schemes in a Changing Pension World: Volume 1. Progress, Lessons, and Implementation (pp. 31-84). Washington, DC: World Bank.
Conference paper:
  • Bickmann, M. (2016). Factor Mobility and Non-Harmonized Public Pension Systems in Europe. Paper presented in 14th International Workshop on Pensions, Insurance and Savings, Paris.
  • Fernandes, J. L. (2007). Risk Taking in Financial Markets: Behavioral Perspective Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Retrieved March 25, 2017, from https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/6287466.pdf
  • Markoff, J. (2016, May 17). Want to Buy a Self-Driving Car? Big-Rig Trucks May Come First. The New York Times. Retrieved March 25, 2017, from https://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/17/technology/want-to-buy-a-self-driving-car-trucks-may-come-first.html?action=click&contentCollection=Business Day&module=RelatedCoverage®ion=EndOfArticle&pgtype=article


  • Galouchko, K., & Kucukreisoglu, L. (2016, October 18). Poland Seeks to Lock in Low Yields Selling 30-Year Eurobond. Retrieved March 25, 2017, from https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-10-18/poland-seeks-to-lock-in-low-yields-with-first-30-year-eurobond
Working paper:
  • Debowicz, D., Saporiti, A., & Wang, Y. (2016). Redistributive Politics, Power Sharing and Fairness (LIS Working Paper Series , Working paper No. 681). Luxembourg Income Study.


In compiling our instructions we used some valuable guidelines. Some of them we recommend to read more deeply:

  • Dudenhefer, P. (2009). A guide to Writing in Economics. EcoTeach Center and Department of Economics, Durham USA: Duke University. Retrieved March 16, 2017, from http://writing.ku.edu/sites/writing.drupal.ku.edu/files/docs/Guide_Writing_Economics.pdf
  • Neugeboren, R. (2005). The student's guide to writing economics. New York, NY: Routledge.
  • Nikolov, P. (2013). Writing Tips For Economics Research Papers. Harvard University. Retrieved March 16, 2017, from http://www.people.fas.harvard.edu/~pnikolov/resources/writingtips.pdf and
  • Redmond, P. (2015). Writing Economics at University. Retrieved March 16, 2017, from https://ddd.uab.cat/pub/recdoc/2015/166563/Writing_Economics.pd

Submission fee payment

  • Standard submission & service fee established for the 2019 year open-access publications is 150 Euro.
  • The fee is subject to change considering the publisher occurring costs for sustaining and improving the open-access business model, as well as counting competitive publishing environment demanding to keep the high quality of international publication services. Changes in pricing happen only once per year.
  • The fee is due to pay only after accepting the paper by Editorial Boards and positive expertise review.
  • It is obligation and responsibility of an author to check the fee conditions to avoid the fee policy discussions after acceptance of the article. Authors are responsible to read and accept fee (150 euro) payment obligations of the targeted journal. The website has clear information about publication fees and payment terms. When paper accepted and published the author is obliged to fulfill his/ her fee payment obligations in the shortest time after the invoice issued.
  • The fee provides compensation of a range services related with expertise, scientific and technical editing, online printing, electronic storing and web-managing. All papers are printed online (with corresponding online ISSN).
  • The major  version of PIEB publication is online (electronic) with eISSN 1804-0527
  • The fee is not a subject to guarantee the sending printed copy via standard air mail.

Payments options

  • You will receive an invoice with several payment methods you can choose after the letter of acceptance.


  • Payments must be done only after the final letter of acceptance of a paper to publication.
  • Authors are responsible to read and accept fee payment obligations of the targeted journal. The website has clear information about publication fees and payment terms. When paper accepted and published the author is obliged to fulfill his/ her fee payment obligations in the shortest time after the invoice issued.
  • When the paper is conditionally accepted and the fee is paid but the final work from the authors remains incomplete and unsatisfactory for reviewers, the publication is delayed until the final resolution. The process can take a time around 1-12 months. In case authors fail, due to various reasons, to match all the requirements of reviewers and editors, the article is rejected. The paid fee is not refundable to the authors.

Electronic submission