BEH publication ethics

Publication ethics

 Editors of Business and Economic Horizons (BEH) are committed to the highest standards of ethics in academic research and publishing. Ethical conduct in both writing and editing is necessary in order to provide the readers with accurate, useful and reliable scientific material, as well as to appropriately honor the credits of particular researchers and authors. Therefore, compliance with the following standards of publication ethics is required of all contributors of BEH, including authors, reviewers and editors. Violation of any of these standards by an author is a basis for rejection of his or her paper submitted for publication.

I.  Authorship and Co-authorship

1. Authorship
Authorship credit should be based on meeting the following criteria: 1) substantial contribution to paper concept or design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; 2) drafting the article or reviewing and introducing fundamental changes in it; 3) final approval of the version to be published.
All persons designated as authors and co-authors should meet these criteria. As co-authors of a paper there should be identified all persons who have made significant scientific contributions to the work reported, and who therefore share responsibility its content and results. Authors should also appropriately recognize the contributions of technical staff and data professionals. All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship (e.g. financial support) should be listed in the section “Acknowledgements” (financial disclosure). Editors retain the right to request information about the contributions of each person in writing the article.
Authors should also be aware that the following phenomena are the examples of scientific misconduct and must be avoided:
Ghostwriting -  a substantial contribution to publication has been made, without revealing author’s participation, or without being mentioned in the acknowledgments enclosed to the paper.
Guest authorship (honorary authorship) - the author's contribution is insignificant, despite of declaration.
A group of co-authors should jointly make the decision about the order in which their names are given. During manuscript submission, the submitting author must provide contact information (full name, email address, institutional affiliation and mailing address) for all of the co-authors. The author who submits the manuscript for publication accepts the responsibility of notifying all co-authors of the manuscript being submitted. The corresponding author must fill in and sign the Declaration of Contribution (in case there are two authors or more), which should be submitted together with the manuscript.
All detected cases of scientific misconduct will be documented and the appropriate institutions and entities will be notified.
2. Sources of data and ideas
Authors are required to faithfully acknowledge and identify the contributions of other persons to their reported work as well as clearly identify sources of both data and ideas. Authors should cite all publications that have been important in the development of the submitted study and that will guide the reader to the earlier researchers that are essential for understanding the present analysis.
Authors are required to make reasonable and diligent efforts to find, and then accurately cite original sources and publications. Authors should only present as reliable either personally verified or peer-reviewed sources of scientific data and literature.
Authors must not engage in plagiarism or self-plagiarism. Plagiarism is verbatim or near-verbatim copying, or paraphrasing without due modification, of text, data, or other material containing results of another person’s work, without explicit identification of the source of such material. Similarly, self-plagiarism is replicating of the author’s own previously published text or results without acknowledgment of the source. Exercising care for publishing only original research, editors of BEH are committed to deterring plagiarism and self-plagiarism and may use special software to screen submitted manuscripts for similarity to a previously published material. The manuscripts may be screened during the whole editorial cycle, including the submission process and until the final publication in an online form.
3. Duplicate publications
It is prohibited for an author to submit manuscripts describing essentially the same research to more than one journal of primary publication unless it is a resubmission of a manuscript rejected for or withdrawn from publication.

II. Quality of Published Work

1. Comprehensiveness of research and publications
An author is required to organize his or her paper so that it provides a well-rounded description of the examined issue.
Fragmentation of research reports excessively consumes journal space and unduly complicates literature research, therefore authors are expected to avoid it whenever possible.
2. Conflicts of interest
Conflict of interest is a situation in which the process of research and publication may be corrupted or its results may be biased because of some other interests of its participants. It may concern any one or more of the participants of the research and publication process – the author, the reviewer, or the editor. Conflicts of interest may occur for financial (e.g. employment opportunities, fees or other compensation arrangements, beneficial ownership of stock) or other reasons (e.g., personal relationships, pursuit of academic career, intellectual passion, political involvement etc.) that can reasonably be expected to influence motivations or results of actions of participants of the publication process.
Conflicts of interest constitute a serious threat to the integrity and objectivity of both scientific research and publishing. Therefore best practice for authors, reviewers and editors alike, is to avoid conflicts of interest situations whenever possible.
All participants in publication process who are in the situation of a conflict of interest must disclose this fact. Of special importance is that if the original research study reported in the manuscript or the preparation of the manuscript was supported by one or more grants, the title and number of the grant(s) and the name of the institution(s) that provided the grants or financial support to conduct, analyze or write-up the study, must be specified in the manuscript.
Editors of BEH may use information disclosed in conflict-of-interest and financial-support statements as a basis for editorial decisions. The corresponding author must either notify the editor at the time of submission that there is no conflict of interest to declare, or fairly and effectively communicate all conflicts of interest, which will then be acknowledged in the published article.

III. Reviewing and Editing

1. Reviewing
Business and Economic Horizons is a peer-reviewed journal. Submitted papers and short communication are evaluated by independent referees or Editorial Board members specialized in the article field. Paper reviews evaluate submitted material’s scientific significance and novelty, define it’s accordance to general journal profile, scrutinize its content for compliance with the journal’s publication ethics. After the refereeing process is complete, the paper may be rejected, returned to the author for revisions, or accepted for publication.
2. Editing
The authors are responsible for the contents of their paper or short communication. Editors may request an author, when considered necessary, to elaborate on the content or technical details of the paper. Scientific editing might change format and correct the writing to render it compliant with the editorial policy of the journal.
Pictures and graphs are a special subject to editorial consideration, as their quantity should be optimal and only necessary in the content of papers. Pictures, graphs and textual content alike are subject to ethical standards concerning authorship and integrity. Additionally, whenever images are included in accounts of the research process or results, or in data collections, the author must provide an accurate description of how the images originated.
3.Retraction or/and withdrawing of reviewed and published articles
The peer-reviewed and published articles cannot be retracted or withdrawn. If the article was officially submitted and accepted by editors after screening and reviewing, the withdrawal and retraction are not possible.  Accepted articles assume that our experts and reviewers could not identify problems with merits of a submitted article. After the positive initial screening and double-blind reviewing, every article is assigned with DOI.
However, editors do understand satisfaction concerns of an author and usually ask for describing the problem for further reviewer's examination and discussion. So, the one possible option is that it can be possible to make changes within the reasonable shortest time after online publication.  Another option, an author can write another article which should provide the follow-up review of errors/mistakes in a theoretical research or empirical model in the previously published article.
For more details please read terms and conditions which you officially accept when you send your articles to the editors' emails. It is a responsibility of an author to read instruction, conditions, and terms before the submission of an article.  These terms make retraction or removal impossible. Only editors and publisher make decisions after receiving the article regarding rejection, further update or publishing.
Information regarding the retraction and withdrawal conditions are available in the following sections of the core official page of the journal:
- the section "Publication ethics"
- the section  "Terms and Conditions"
- the section "Guide to Authors"

Antecedents of burnout and its relationship to internal audit quality

This article [written by Mohannad Al Shbail, Zalailah Salleh, Mohd Nazli Mohd Nor] – published in Business and Economic Horizons, Volume 14(4), 2018.

Title: Antecedents of burnout and its relationship to internal audit quality

Abstract: This paper presents an assessment on the effect and consequences of burnout as a factor impacting premature sign-offs (PMSO) among internal auditors. Hence, questionnaires were sent to 187 internal auditors from Jordan to gather data. The data analysis results show the presence of some job burnout antecedents which are: ethical tension, role conflict, role ambiguity, and neuroticism personality trait. For internal auditors, job burnout can reduce the level of their job satisfaction. Meanwhile, dissatisfaction in the workplace among internal auditors, may increase negative behaviours including premature sign-offs.

Keywords: Ethical tension, role ambiguity, role conflict, neuroticism job satisfaction, job burnout, premature sign-off

Citation: Al Shbail, M., Salleh, Z., Mohd Nor, M. N. 2018. Antecedents of burnout and its relationship to internal audit quality. Business and Economic Horizons, Vol.14, Issue4, pp.789-817. DOI:


An analysis of the relationship between foreign direct investment (FDI), political risk and economic growth in South Africa

This article [written by Daniel Francois Meyer, & Thomas Habanabakize] – published in Business and Economic Horizons, Volume 14(4), 2018.

Title: An analysis of the relationship between foreign direct investment (FDI), political risk and economic growth in South Africa

Abstract: A country’s political stability and trends in economic growth are important factors to attract foreign investment. Most developing countries struggle to achieve political stability and high levels of growth. Due to these issues, developing countries attract limited foreign investment. Applying the Bounds test for cointegration, an ARDL model was utilized using time series data from 1995 to 2016, this study examined the potential impact of political risk and gross domestic product (GDP) on foreign direct investment (FDI) flows to the South Africa. Findings of the study revealed that in both short and long run, political risk and economic growth affect the level of foreign direct investment. The political risk rating was found to have a higher impact on FDI flow if compared to GDP. The lower the political risk level (resulting in a highly rated index), the higher the level of FDI inflows. Using the Granger causality approach, empirical results indicated a bi-directional causal relationship between FDI and economic growth, while it was found that political risk causes changes in FDI. In other words, individually, political risk and gross domestic product cause changes in FDI. Based on the study findings, it is imperative for the South African government to reduce the level of political risk in order to increase foreign investment into the country which, in return, could assist in economic growth and welfare.

Keywords: ARDL model, economic growth, foreign direct investment, political risk, South Africa

Citation: Meyer, D. F., Habanabakize, Tho., 2018. An analysis of the relationship between foreign direct investment (FDI), political risk and economic growth in South Africa. Business and Economic Horizons, Vol.14, Issue4, pp.777-788. DOI:


Global financial crisis 2008 and its vulnerability in SAARC countries

The article [written by Irma Setyawati] has been published in Business and Economic Horizons, Volume 14(4), 2018.

Title: Global financial crisis 2008 and its vulnerability in SAARC countries

Abstract: The key objective of the study is to analyze the impact of global financial crisis on export in countries of SAARC region. For current empirical analysis, this study used a gravity model to investigate export of final goods from SAARC countries to high-income countries during the period 2003 to 2014. The independent and dependent variables were used in the natural logarithm form of dummy variables. The geographical distance between capitals of trading partners and importer’s and exporter’s GDPs are used as standard independent variables. Consequently, this study includes their dummy variables demonstrating common official language, membership in regional trading agreements and financial crisis. Therefore, to examine the impact of the last crisis, the model comprises dummy variable (y2007, y2008, y2009 and y2010) representing critical years of study. Moreover, this study also used random effect approach which required that at least one assumption should be fulfilled which is zero correlation of independent variables. The current study concluded that financial markets of SAARC countries remained less vulnerable to the financial crisis or bad-loan crisis because of having less exposure to subprime assets and high capital to risk assets ratio. However, trade of goods and services of the SAARC countries with the developed economy resulted in negative effects on most of the SAARC countries. Moreover, the study also revealed that financial crisis had serious repercussion for the other countries of the SAARC region due to lack of appropriate response and that a timely response by countries could save the prolonged negative influence of financial crisis.

Keywords: Financial crisis, GDP, gravity model, SAARC countries

Citation: Setyawati, Irma, 2018. Global financial crisis 2008 and its vulnerability in SAARC countries. Business and Economic Horizons, Vol.14, Issue4, pp.766-776. DOI:


Budget deficit and growth: in search of ceiling for Bangladesh

The article [written by S. M. Abdullah, Abul Kalam Azad, Salina Siddiqua] has been published in Business and Economic Horizons, Volume 14(4), 2018.

Title: Budget deficit and growth: in search of ceiling for Bangladesh

Abstract: The impact of fiscal deficit measured by deficit in national budget on the growth of respective economy has been a widely researched area with plenty of debatable results. Shedding light in search of the optimum level of budget deficit, the current paper tried to contribute to the field of literature on this issue which is perhaps inadequate as far as Bangladesh economy is concerned. A total of 40 years of time series data spanning form 1975 – 76 to 2014 – 15 has been employed. Identification of integration order of the variables was examined performing Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF), Phillips-Perron (PP) and Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin (KPSS) tests. Establishing the existence of cointegration among variables following the Johansen’s procedure, long-run cointegrating vector has been estimated depending on VECM. The threshold has been identified solving the estimated long-run cointegrating relationship for a local maximum. Findings can be summarized by saying that the long run impact of budget deficit on growth would remain positive; nevertheless, there would be no short-run adjustment. Depending on the model definition and the particular exogenous variable(s), the threshold budget deficit has been measured to range between 4.55 to 5.0 percent of GDP. 

Keywords: Economic growth, budget deficit, threshold, cointegration, stationarity, VECM

Citation: Abdullah, S. M., Azad, Abul Kalam; Siddiqua, Salina, 2018. Budget deficit and growth: in search of ceiling for Bangladesh. Business and Economic Horizons, Vol.14, Issue4, pp.743-765.


Working capital policies and value creation of listed non-financial firms in Ghana: a panel FMOLS analysis

The article written by Siaw Frimpong has bee n published in Business and Economic Horizons, Volume 14(4), 2018.


The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of aggressive/ conservative working capital policies on value creation. Data from the10 non-financial firms listed on the Ghana Stock Exchange spanning over the period 2004-2015 was used for this study. The study adopted quantitative research design applied to panel cointegration and panel fully modified ordinary least square methodology. The panel cointegration results indicated that there is a long-run equilibrium relationship between working capital variables and shareholders’ value creation. The panel FMOLS results revealed that aggressive current asset investment policies enhance market-to-book ratio in the long-run. On the other hand, conservative current asset financing policies enhance market-to-book ratio in the long-run. 
This study has two contributions. First, prior studies investigated the relationship between the components of working capital management and shareholder value creation without looking at the specific policies being pursued and their effect on the shareholders’ value creation. Second, this study employs a contemporary econometric methodology in analyzing the data.
Keywords: Aggressive current asset investment policies, conservative current asset financing policies, panel cointegration, panel fully modified, market-to-book ratio

Business and Economic Horizons, Volume 14, Issue 3 has been published online

The Issue 3 of Volume 14 (2018) has been published. The following documents are included to the completed issue:

  • Effects of service quality on customer satisfaction and customer loyalty: A case of 4- and 5-star hotels in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam [by Ho Dinh Phi, Long Phan Thanh, Bang Nguyen Viet]
  • Accounting expertise in the audit committee and earnings management [By Mujeeb Saif Mohsen Al-Absy, Ku Nor Izah Ku Ismail, Sitraselvi Chandren]
  • Learning organization: a fine example of a management fad [by Slobodan Adzic ]
  • Does foreign direct investment reduce poverty? The case of Latin America in the twenty-first century [by Pablo Quiñonez, Joselin Saenz, Jessica Solorzano]
  • Determinants of Chinese demand for tourism in Malaysia [by Chin-Hong Puah, Suk-Hie Huan, Fung-Thai Thien]
  • Determinants of financial performance of banks in Central and Eastern Europe [by Roger Antoun, Ali Coskun, Bojan Georgievski]
  • Participation in continuous professional development training and perceived teaching assessment: A case study at the Malaysian Technical University [by Nor Hazana Abdullah, Alina Shamsuddin, Eta Wahab, Muazu Hassan Muazu]
  • Examining the nexus between exchange rate volatility and export performance: Empirical evidence from the Egyptian experience [by Heidi Aly, Rana Hosni]
  • Determinants of corporate cash holding: evidence from UK listed firms [by Le Duc Hoang, Phi Long Tran, Thu Phuong Ta, Duy Minh Vu]
  • Corruption awareness and ethical decision making in Indonesia [by Ashari Ashari, Marthin Nanere, Philip Trebilcock]
  • Board diversity, audit committee characteristics and audit quality: The moderating role of control-ownership wedge [by Aree Saeed Mustafa, Ayoib Che-Ahmad, Sitraselvi Chandren]
  • Brand loyalty for domestic and global brands: A case of Thai fast-moving consumer goods [by Sonthaya Sampaothong]
  • Moderating effect of competitive strategies on the relation between financial leverage and firm performance: evidence from Jordan [by Mahmoud Al-Rdaydeh, Ammar Yaser Almansour, Mohammad Ahmad Al-Omari]
  • Economic impact of the change in tax rate on small enterprises of manufacturing and construction sectors: Evidence from Russia 2006-2014 [by Karen Tumanyants]
  • Internal factors of bank profitability in the Republic of Serbia [by Violeta Domanovic, Violeta Todorovic, Sladjana Savovic]
  • Inflationary effects of fiscal and monetary policies in Indonesia [by Jaka Sriyana]
  • Outsider vs insider: Does firm governance matter? [by Yahya Uthman Abdullahi, Rokiah Ishak, Norfaiezah Sawandi]
  • Socialization: An important factor of redenomination success in Indonesia [by Bulan Prabawani, Ita Hanika Musfirowati, Eri Werdani Riandhita]
  • An empirical investigation between liquidity and key financial ratios of Islamic banks of United Arab Emirates (UAE) [by Mosab Tabash]

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